Late 1700s Judith Sargeant Murray helped establish the first Universalist Society in Salem
1790 - 1830 Second Great Awakening
1797 Captain Jonathan Carnes of Salem, Massachusetts returns from Sumatra with first large pepper cargo and puts United States in world spice trade.
1800 Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams for the presidency
1790 - 1807 Salem's "Golden Age"-a time of expanding trade and profit
1801 Salem Female Charitable Society formed
1802 Nathaniel Bowditch published New American Practical Navigator, being an epitome of navigation and nautical astronomy
1802 Minerva, ship owned by Clifford Crowninshield and Nathaniel West, returned from China
1803 Louisiana Purchase
1804 Thomas Jefferson re-elected over Federalist Charles C. Pinckney
1804 July 4, Nathaniel Hawthorne, author, born
1804 Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, publisher and educator who opened the nation's first kindergarten, born
1805 Hamilton Hall built by Salem architect, Samuel McIntire
1805 Nathaniel Bowditch House built
1807 Trade Embargo of 1807, which forbids U.S. ships to sail for foreign ports, in full effect; approximately 25 of Salem's ocean going vessels were idle
1808 Republican James Madison defeats Federalist Charles C. Pinckney for presidency
1809 March 7, Embargo repealed
1810 the Salem Athenaeum incorporated
1810 Active sailed from Salem on the first trading voyage to the Fiji Islands
1810 - 1812 Benjamin W. Crowninshield House built
1811 Town meeting decided "an unjust and ruinous war is impolitic, unnecessary and disastrous to Salem shipping."
1811 Salem's first Roman Catholic Church organized
1812 - 1815 War of 1812; United States at war with Britain
1812 Anna Hasseltine Judson and her husband, Adoniram, were commissioned from Tabernacle Church to travel to Burma
1814 Benjamin Crowinshield of Salem became Secretary of the Navy
1814 Hartford Convention, New England states discussed secession
1816 James Monroe elected president in landslide; "Era of Good Feeling"
1816 Massachusetts Steam Navigation Co., incorporated
1817 July 8, President James Monroe visited Salem and was entertained at Secretary Crowinshield's home
1817 Salem's craftsmen formed the Salem Charitable Mechanics Association
1818/1819 Andrew Safford House built by John Andrew
1818/1819 Derby Wharf Custom House built by order of Congress
1820 Missouri Compromise
1822 Candy maker, "Mrs. Spencer," invented Gibraltars
1823 Seaman's Society formed
1824 House of Representatives selects John Quincy Adams as new president
1824 August 31, the Marquis de Lafayette entertained at Hamilton Hall
1825 Nathaniel Hawthorne graduated from Bowdoin College
1825 October 14, President John Quincy Adams dedicated the East India Marine Hall
1826 200th anniversary of the founding of Salem
1826 Temperance movement gained hold in Salem
1827 Spy was the first ship to enter Salem Harbor from Zanzibar
1828 Andrew Jackson elected president
1828 Nathaniel Hawthorne anonymously published Fanshawe, a tale
1829 March 31, Dr. Edward Augustus Holyoke, first president of the Philosophical Society, the Salem Athenaeum, and the Essex Historical Society, died
1829 Joseph Dixon opens the first lead pencil factory in the United States in Salem
1830 American Colonization Society established Liberia on the west coast of Africa to resettle free blacks
1830 Invention of the steam press
1830 Salem's famous White Murder Trial
1830 Salem Lyceum Society organized
1831 an anti-Masonry party in Salem
1832 U.S. House of Representatives instituted a gag rule that covered all future discussion of slavery
1833 June 26, President Andrew Jackson stayed at the home of merchant Nathaniel West
1833 Seamen's Widow and Orphan Association of Salem formed
1833 Essex County Natural History Society first met
1834 Salem Female Anti-Slavery Society formed; members included Charlotte Forten and Sarah Parker Remond
1835 October 29, an anti-slavery riot in Salem
1835 Record of a School published anonymously by Elizabeth Palmer Peabody about the school run by Bronson Alcott, whose educational theories helped inspire the Transcendentalists
1836 Democrat Martin Van Buren elected over candidate of new Whig Party
1836 Salem was incorporated as a city and chose Leverett Saltonstall as its first mayor
1837 Panic of 1837
1837 Salem's City Hall was built with funds from the federal government
1837 First Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women meets in Philadelphia
1838 Nathaniel Bowditch died
1838 August 27, the Eastern Railroad began to offer service from Salem to Boston
1839 Naumkeag Steam Cotton Company incorporated
1839 Seamen's Orphan and Children's Friend Society organized
1830s-1840s Susan Burley held evening salons and organized the Salem Book Club
1840 Whig William Henry Harrison elected president over Democrat Van Buren; Harrison died one month after taking office and replaced by ex-Democrat John Tyler
1842 Horace Mann, educator who was instrumental in the establishment of Salem Normal School and brother-in-law of Nathaniel Hawthorne, officiated at the opening of a new school
1842 Sophia Amelia Peabody married Nathaniel Hawthorne
1842 A Mormon Church was formed in Salem
1843 Benjamin Pickman, merchant and representative to Congress in 1809, died
1843 Salem native S.B. Ives develops "The Mansion of Happiness," the first board game in the United States.
1843 Mary Peabody married Horace Mann
1844 Democrat James K. Polk defeats Whig Henry Clay
1844 Joseph Peabody died; Salem's Indies trade virtually ceased, and Salem was no longer an important port
1844 Ladies Seamen Friend Society organized
1845 Irish potato famine; 1.75 million Irish leave Ireland for US and Canada
1846 - 1848 War with Mexico
1847 President James Knox Polk passed through Salem
1847 The Naumkeag Steam Cotton Company's first mill began production
1848 Mexican War Hero General Zachary Taylor, a Whig, defeats General Lewis Cass for presidency
1848 Dr. William Bentley, Salem scholar and diarist, died
1848 first woman's rights convention held in Seneca Falls, NY
1848 California Gold Rush
1849 Sculptor Louisa Lander, granddaughter of Elias Hasket Derby, moved to Salem
1850 President Taylor died; Millard Fillmore became president
1850 Compromise of 1850
1850 Salem stores were lighted with gas for the first time as the Salem Gas Light Company commenced operation
1850 - 1851 John Tucker Daland House built by noted Boston architect Gridley J. F. Bryant for the prosperous Salem merchant John Tucker Daland
1851 Lucy Stone, suffragist and anti-slavery advocated, lectured for the Salem Female Anti-Slavery Society
1851 Alexander Burton, a free black barber of Salem, arrested as a suspect in the rescue of Shadrach Minkins from federal marshals
1852 Democrat Franklin Pierce elected president; death of the Whig Party
1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom's Cabin
1854 Salem Normal School opened
1854 the anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic Know-Nothing Party active in Salem
1854 Kansas-Nebraska Bill nullified Missouri Compromise
1856 Democrat James Buchanan elected president over Know-Nothing Millard Fillmore and Republican John C. Fremont
1856 The Woman Suffrage Club of Salem hosted the Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association's annual convention at Lyceum Hall
1856/1857 Caroline Plummer, philanthropist, donated funds to construct Plummer Hall to house the Salem Athenaeum and Essex Institute
1857 US experienced economic slump
1857 US Supreme Court's proslavery Dred Scott decision
1858 the Young Men's Christian Association organized
1859 John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry
1860 Republican Abraham Lincoln defeated Northern Democrat Stephen Douglas, Southern Democrat John C. Breckenridge, and Constitutional Unionist John Bell
1860 South Carolina seceded from the Union
1860s Salem saw an influx of French-Canadian immigrants
1861 Association for the Relief of Aged and Destitute Women of Salem created
1861 Salem Female Employment Society founded
1861 War declared
1861 - 1865 over 3,000 men from Salem served in the Army and Navy